Wednesday, 11 April 2012

Symbiosis- Commensalism Plants Ethan's Group

Names: Kai Chek, Loynes and Ethan
Relationship: Commensalism
Plant A: Bird Nest Fern
Plant B: Tree
How do they benefit each other: The fern lives on the tree so as to be able to reach the sunlight. The tree is not affected in anyway

Symbiosis -Predator prey relationship

Team Names: Dylan, Balram, Dhruti, Deming
Relationship: Predator-prey relationship
Animal A: Bear
Animal B: Fish 
 The bear benefits from the relationship, being the predator, consuming the fish and benefitting from it.The fish is the prey in the relationship, getting eaten by the bear.

Symbiosis- parasitism

Team Names:Allen Kim,Marcus Loh,Julian 
Animal A:Mosquito
Animal B:Human.
Mosquitoes benefit by sucking blood from humans.Humans acquire mosquito bites.In severe cases,some may contain various viruses deadly to us.

Symbiosis - Mutualism

Zong han, Jee Hoon, Joshua and Adam

Relationship: Mutualism
Animal A: Ants
Animal B: Aphids
How do they benefit each other: 
Ants feed on 'honeydew' excreted by the Aphids. This 'honeydew' is high in sugar content. In turn, the Ants protect the Aphids from its predators such as the Ladybug.

Relationship: commensalism Howe Wee, Yong Lin, Gregory and Terrence

Animal A: Barnacles 
Animal B: Whale
Barnacles are highly sedentary crustaceans that must attach themselves permanently to a hard substrate. Barnacles are often found on whales as they need to attach themselves to something, this is beneficial to the barnacles but has no effect on the whales

Wednesday, 28 March 2012

Activity 2 (Loynes, Kai Chek, Terrence, Dylan


Mammary glands
Lower jaw made up of a single jaw
Three middle ear bone


lays eggs
warm blooded
four chamber hearts


Cold Blooded
Can survive in water and on land
Typically reproduce in the sea


Reptiles are ectothermic vertebrates
Their skin has scales, but no hair or feathers.
They have three-chambered hearts (except for alligators and crocodiles, which have four-chambered hearts).
They have claws on their toes (except those which do not have legs, such as legless lizards).
They are the first animals, in evolution, to develop the amniotic egg. This allows reptiles to lay eggs on land.

Activity 2 - Monera, Protista and Fungi

- May be unicellular (e.g. yeast) or multicellular (e.g. moulds)
- Body of multicellular
- fungus is made up of fine threads
- Presence of cell wall made up of chitin
- Chlorophyll absent
- Can reproduce sexually or asexually

-Unicellular organisms
- Have membrane-bound organelles i.e. eukaryotes
- Divided into three main categories: the plant like algae, animal like protozoans and fungus like slime molds.
  • Protista with mitochondria include, Trypanosoma, a genus of blood parasites.
  • Simplest of the eukaryotes.
- Monera is a single celled organism that does not have a nuclear membrane
- Monera has no membrane bound organelles
- Monera has genetic material is in the cytoplasm called nucleoid
- Some monera have a tail-like flagella for movement
- Monera are usually round, rod-like or spiral in shape.

Activity 2 - Plantae

Flowering Plants


~ Flowering plants bear flowers only when they are fully grown. It does not bear flowers when they are young

Flowering Plants are divided into two groups:-
~ One seed leaf(Monocotyledons) about 50000 species
Seeds produce one seed leaf on germination
Leaves have veins running in parallel about their length
Vascular tissue is scattered randomly throughout the stem
Includes lilies, grasses and many related cereal crops, and among trees, the fruit-bearing palms

~ Two seed leaves(Dicotyledons) about 200000 species
Seeds produce two seed leaves on germination
Generally more complex than Monocotyledons
Veins spread net-like across their leaves
Vascular tissue is arrange in an orderly ring around the stem
Includes most flowering plants, and many hardwood trees, such as oaks, limes and beeches.

Flowering plant reproduction:-
Sexual reproduction
Male reproductive organs - Stamen
~ Anther - contains pollen sacs which releases grains of pollens, which are the male reproductive cells
~ Filament - supports anther

Female reproductive organs - Pistil
~ Stigma - it has a sticky surface which traps pollen grains that lands or touch it
~ Style - where pollen tubes grow
~ Ovary - contains one or more ovules. It develops into a fruit, after fertilization, which protects the seed inside
~ Ovule - contains the egg nucleus, which are the female reproductive cells. The ovules will develop into seeds after fertilization.

Asexual reproduction 
Some plants do not have male and female reproduction organs
Vegetative Propagation
~ It is a process by which a new plant arise or are obtained not by seeds or spores, but their plant parts
- Leaves
- Suckers
- Underground Stems
- Bulb: daffodil, onion, hyacinth
- Corms: crocus, water-chestnut, coco-yam
- Runners: strawberry, spider plant
- Rhizomes: ginger, iris, marram grass, lotus
- Tubers: Potato 

Non-Flowering Plants



~ Non-Flowering Plants do not bear flowers at all
~ Non-Flowering Plants are divided into ferns and mosses
- Mosses are usually very small in size and prefer to live in damp, shady areas
- Ferns often have large leaves that help them to live in places where there is little sunlight

Non-Flowering Plant reproduction:-
~ reproduce by spores
some spores are found in the spore bags located on the underside of mature leaves - e.g. Fern
while some spores are found in the spore bags located at the end of the stalks - e.g. Moss
~ When the spores are mature, they are released in to the air and carried by the wind or water to new places.
~ Conifers reproduce by seeds produced in the cones

Done By: Danish, Fathiah, Jemaimah, Joshua

Tuesday, 27 March 2012

Activity 1 (Yong Lin, Allen, Adam, Deming)

Activity 1 ( Howe Wee, Sharifa, Balrum and Gregory)

Activity 2-Plantae

Key Characteristics

Non-Flowering Plants

- Reproduces through spores

- Does not have flowers

- Asexual reproduction

- It has great adaptability

Flowering Plants

The flower is the reproductive organ of all flowering plants.

-male reproduction parts
The stamen is made up of two main parts:
1. The filament is a stalk which supports the anther.
2. The anther is where the pollen (sperm) is made, and the pollen travels to the stigma on the female part of the plant.

-female reproduction parts
The pistil is made up of three main parts:
1. On the top is the stigma. It's sticky, and collects the pollen from the anther. Either self-pollination (within the same plant) or cross-pollination (between two different plants) occurs.
2. In the middle is the style, the thin, slender tube which connects the stigma to the ovary. Pollen travels through it to get to the ovary.
3. The ovary is where fertilization takes place. It makes ovules (eggs). The ovules unite with the pollen. A fertilized egg becomes a seed and the ovary develops into a fruit.

-produces fruit
Unlike non-flowering plants, flowering plants produce fruits after the flower is being fertilized. The flower withers away and the fruit starts to grow.

produces seeds
Seeds are produced by all flowering plants. Seeds are dispersed in different ways, some of the examples are by wind, by clinging onto the fur of animals and by water.

done by:
Jee Hoon, Dhruti, Zhong Han

Vertebrates Group 4 (Deming, Allen, Yong Lin, Adam)

1. Fish are ectothermic, aquatic vertebrates.
2. Their skin is generally covered with scales.
3. Their limbs are modified into fins for swimming.
4. They breathe with gills.
5. They lay eggs that must be in water.

1. Amphibians are ectothermic vertebrates.
2. Their skin lacks scales, hair, and feathers, and is either smooth (like a frog) or rough (like a toad). They are dependent upon moisture and subject to desiccation; their skin must remain moist to aid in breathing.
3. They lay eggs in water, which hatch into an intermediate life form (tadpole or larva) that usually breathes with gills, and change into the adult form that breathes air and can live outside water
4. They have three-chambered hearts.
5. They lack claws on their toes. 

1. Reptiles are ectothermic vertebrates.
2. Their skin has scales, but no hair or feathers.
3. They have three-chambered hearts (except for alligators and crocodiles, which have four-chambered hearts).
4. They have claws on their toes (except those which do not have legs, such as legless lizards).
5. They are the first animals, in evolution, to develop the amniotic egg. This allows reptiles to lay eggs on land.

1. Birds are endothermic vertebrates.
2. Their skin is covered with feathers.
3. They have four-chambered hearts.
4. Their bones are lightweight and usually hollow.
5. Their forelimbs are modified as wings.


1. Mammals are endothermic vertebrates.
2. They have hair, which varies greatly among species.
3. Most have sudoriferus (sweat) glands.
4. They have mammary (milk-secreting) glands.
5. They have sebaceous (fat-secreting) glands.

Activity 2 (Ethan, Marcus, Sarah, Julian) - INVERTEBRATES

An invertebrate is an animal without a backbone.

Invertebrates are a very diverse group of species, including:

  • Insects
  • Spiders
  • Crustaceans (lobsters and crabs)
  • Worms
  • Mollusks (squids, snails and clams)
  • Coral

Characteristics common among invertebrates:

  1. All of them lack a backbone

2. These soft bodied animals maintain their body shape by maintaining their internal pressure. Some invertebrates have hard outer covering called as exoskeleton to protect them from their predators.

3. The body of the invertebrates is of two types. They are radial symmetry (no left or right sides) and the other one is called as bilateral symmetry. (Can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves)

4. Habitat: The invertebrates are generally found every where in air, water and soil.

5. Shape: The invertebrates are various in shape. Some do not have any regular shape like amoeba. It changes its shape. The rest of the invertebrate have some definite shape. Some of them are like plant appearance,ribbon-like, vermiform and star.

Activity 1 Group 1

The classification system

The classification system group 2

Activity 1 (Ethan, Marcus, Sarah, Julian)